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|1.||What stem cells are used in your clinic (adult stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, cord blood stem cells, fetal stem cells)?
We use 5–12 weeks old fetal stem cells harvested from legally aborted embryos and subjected to multiple safety testing. These cells preserve their pluripotent properties (ability to differentiate into cells of different germ layers: mesenchymal, ecto- and endodermal) and are the most effective in different diseases and conditions.
|2.||What is the advantage of fetal stem cells in comparison with other types of stem cells (adult, cord blood, animal cells)?
1. Fetal stem cells (FSC) have the highest proliferative potential (ability to multiply).
2. Administration of these cells helps to avoid histocompatibility problems. HLA expression is either absent or minimal. Besides, immunological tolerance, total or selective, develops upon administration of these cells, thus immunosuppression is unnecessary and, as a rule, these cells engraft well in the recipient’s body.
3. Pluripotency is preserved until week 9.
4. These cells are no longer capable of uncontrolled growth.
|3.||Are there adverse side effects related to FSC treatment?
Indications and contraindications for administration of FSC were worked out by the professionals of EmCell clinic. So far, no adverse side effects were reported after FSC administration.
|4.||How long does the treatment last?
Average duration of FSC treatment course varies from 2 to 5 days and depends on the diagnosis, history of illness, complications or concomitant diseases. In order to inform the patient about the time needed for treatment, we require basic medical data.
|5.||How is the treatment performed?
FSC are administered via drip-feed IV, in any body cavity, or subcutaneously, most often in the frontal abdomen. This treatment is non-surgical and well tolerated by the patients.
|6.|| How many days does the patient need to stay at the clinic after the treatment (rehabilitation period)?
Since our treatment is non-surgical and does not involve any complex procedures, post-treatment rehabilitation is not required.
|7.||Is this in- or outpatient treatment?
This is outpatient treatment taking 3–5 hours a day. During the treatment, the attendant may stay in the hospital room together with the patient, especially when the patient needs assistance. Only patients in very advanced condition are left in the clinic for observation in pre- and post-transplantation period.
|8.||Can the treatment result in teratomas or other tumors?
Teratomas can be caused only by early embryonic stem cells (in vitro) (1–2 weeks old). These cells are not yet “educated,” they do not have clear differentiation and morphogenesis program and are capable of uncontrolled growth. We use 5–12 weeks old cells that are differentiated, “educated” in germ layers, no longer capable of uncontrolled growth, and “know for sure” what cell or tissue type they should turn in.
|9.||How soon is it possible to see the effect of treatment?
Post-transplantation effects develop in 2 stages:
Stage I (suspensional) – development of quick effects several hours after transplantation of fetal stem cells (TFSC). These effects make Syndrome of Early Post-Transplantation Improvements: improvement of general condition, less fatigue, better workability and appetite, temperature drop. This syndrome is most vividly manifested in patients with advanced diseases and severe intoxication. Syndrome of Psychofunctional Changes is also reported at this stage: decreased somatic depression, improved emotional state and cognitive processes.
Stage II (cell effects) begins 1–2 months after transplantation and is associated with cell count build-up in the diseased organ or system and subsidence of the disease symptoms: stabilization of hematopoiesis, improvement of immunity, inhibition of progression, lesser degree of dystrophy of different organs and systems including brain, liver, kidney, skin, bowel, cartilages, bones, heart, vessels etc., inhibition of inflammatory processes, increased Karnofsky’s Index, and life quality improvement. These effects are associated with cytokine cascade (formation of biologically active substances – cytokines, cytokinines) taking place for 15–40 days.
|10.||What is the cost of the treatment and what does it include?
Cost of the treatment depends on the diagnosis and number of cell suspensions to be used for the treatment of each patient. It includes:
|11.||How is it possible to pay for the treatment?
Payment is to be made via bank transfer against the invoice.
|12.||What is cell therapy?
Cell therapy is a branch of modern medicine studying stem cells and their clinical use. The main indication for stem cell therapy is disease or condition resulting in cell count reduction.
|13.||Everyone is talking about stem cells, and what is it?
Stem cells are precursors of specialized cells determining tissue type. Stem cells should meet the following criteria:
1. Capacity for migration.
2. Capacity for engraftment in organs and tissues.
3. Self-support capacity – creation of clone, pool or family with stable cell count.
4. Capacity for proliferation under the influence of local cytokines.
5. Capacity for differentiation.
6. Involvement in morphogenesis (formation of tissue).
|14.||Are there stem cells in adult body?
In adult tissues, stem cells are present during lifetime. They restore tissues and create new specialized cells to substitute for those dead due to apoptosis (natural death of cells). For instance, stomach lining cells live only 5 days, while erythrocytes traveling in the vessels all over the body and making more than 2 000 km during lifetime live about 120 days. Epidermis has to be restored every two weeks. According to leading scientists, adult liver regenerates every 300–500 days. The above examples show how intensive body tissue regeneration processes are. As we age, stem cell count decreases, and if stem cell/bone marrow cell ratio in a newborn baby is 1/10,000, in teenagers – 1/100,000, then by the age of 50 it amount to 1/500,000, 70 – 1/1,000,000. That is why the issue of cell pool replenishment and activation of one’s own stem cells is the key one for finding solutions on how to live healthy, longer and stay young. The potential of fetal stem cell transplantation (TFSC) for treatment of presently incurable (ALS, multiple sclerosis, cancer) and genetic (Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, SMA, genetic metabolic disorders) is tremendous.
|15.||What are similarities and differences between fetal and adult stem cells?
For the main differences of fetal stem cells from other cells, please, refer to question 2.
In adults, stem cell count and their proliferative potential are markedly low. Besides, adult stem cells express histocompatibility antigens, which requires HLA-based donor-recipient compatibility, including individual antigens, or immunosuppression. Adult stem cells are pluripotent, which means that their proliferation and differentiation are limited by the germ layer they originate from.
|16.||What are the differences between fetal stem cells and embryonic stem cells (in vitro)?
1. Age (gestation).
2. Fetal stem cells are harvested from germ layers of internal organs of 5–12 weeks old (embryonic period) embryonic cadavers and placed in the containers where multiplication is impossible.
In vitro cells are harvested from 5–8 days old (early embryonic period) IVF embryo blastocyst and placed into laboratory glass for further culturing (multiplication and differentiation). These cells are characterized by uncontrolled growth and can transform into tumors.
3. Both cell types are pluripotent.
|17.||How are fetal stem cells different from cord blood cells?
1. Proliferative potential of cord blood cells is lower than that of fetal stem cells.
2. Cord blood cells are polypotent, not pluripotent.
3. Cord blood stem cells express histocompatibility antigens, therefore in order to ensure their engraftment in the recipient’s body, immunosuppression is needed.
|18.||What is the potential of fetal stem cells?
Stem cell is a science of the method used for treatment of the diseases and conditions resulting in cell count reduction, therefore this method is indicated for a large number of diseases characterized by cell and tissue damage, dystrophy, hypo- and atrophy.
16 years of research and clinical practice showed efficacy of fetal stem cells in treatment of the most severe human diseases including but not limited to multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, stroke, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardium diseases, heart failure, autoimmune and genetic diseases, blood diseases, eye diseases etc. Unique properties of stem cells allowing for creation of the new tissue to substitute for irreversibly damaged (as it was thought before) one ignited hope in many patients whose diseases were considered incurable. Fetal stem cells are exceptionally effective in anti-aging treatment.
|19.||Are there contraindications?
EmCell professionals worked out indications and contraindications for stem cell treatment, and they depend on the disease.
The list of contraindications is quite limited, the main being as follows:
1. Exacerbated vasculitis: capillaritis, phlebitis, arteritis (TFSC is possible after at least three months of remission).
2. Acute thrombosis (treatment is possible not earlier than 3–6 months after exacerbation).
3. Acute hemophthalmia (after 3 months).
4. Expressed pulmonary hypertension secondary to vasculitis, thrombosis, pneumonia, development of acute or subacute pulmonary heart.
5. Myelocarcinosis, myelofibrosis.
6. Terminal stage of the disease (expressed intoxication, advanced metabolic dysfunctions and decompensation of internal organs).
7. Chronic infection lesions (preliminary treatment is required because administration of fetal stem cells might cause exacerbation).
8. Chronic viral infections (preliminary treatment is required).
9. Psychiatric diseases (risk of exacerbation).
There are also disease-related contraindications that can be found in the process of case report analysis.
|20.||On your website, there is no information about eye diseases. Do you treat them?
We offer successful treatment for such diseases as diabetes-induced degenerative retinal diseases, retinitis pigmentosa, hemophthalmia, Best disease and other retinal dystrophies, eye injury, partial or full atrophy of optic nerve. Information about the treatment of eye diseases is being prepared and will appear on the website after analysis and summarization of the data.
|21.||Do you have a clinic and provide treatment in any other country, apart from Ukraine, for example, in Mexico, China, Thailand, etc.?
The clinic in Ukraine is the only one we have, and Kyiv is the only place where we provide our treatments.
We do have representatives in various countries listed on our homepage, but they serve as contact points and intermediaries for people looking for stem cell treatment. They also gather medical information for our potential patients.
Thus, we are not related to any other stem cell clinic in the world.